In the course of gait patterns, the balance is the core of complex neuromuscular mechanism. This type of function is made through the eye, ear, CNS & PNS, and muscular systems. If any of these areas has problem, it can cause gait disorder, fall or injury.
Gait and balance disorders may momentarily happen after a traumatic event or the disorders may continue for a long time by neuromuscular issues. The reasons of gait and balance disorders are as follows:

  • joint pain or conditions, such as arthritis
  • Obesity
  • Chronic alcohl abuse
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • stroke
  • multiple sclerosis (MS)
  • Meniere’s disease
  • muscular dystrophy
  • brain hemorrhage
  • brain tumor
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation
  • spinal cord compression or infarction
  • Guillain Barre
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • myopathy
  • cerebral palsy
  • Gout
  • Pelvic malalignment

Gait and balance disorders may cause pains, muscular weakness, muscle stiffness, loss of balance, and poor posture.
In order to diagnose gait and balance disorders, neurological, physiochemical, and physical tests can be performed. In most cases, only interviews are used for determining the symptom and severity.
For more detailed gait and balance disorder analysis, the tests for sensing organs, cerebrovascular MRI, CT, and cardiovascular function are required to be performed. However, the measurement takes so long and its cost is much high.
If we find the reasons for abovementioned gait and balance disorders, eligible treatments such as medication, surgical treatment, and physical / rehabilitation therapy can be made for recovery to normal gait and balance.